Research: The Industrial Revolution Left Psychological Scars That Can Still Be Seen Today

March 26, 2018

mar18-14-nypl_5SDWW-OC-270-DgS

The Industrial Revolution, which brought together large-scale coal-based industries like mining, steel, pottery, and textiles, helped create the foundation of modern society and wealth. At the same time, the early industrial economies that formed in this era were also associated with brutal working and living conditions. Our research, recently accepted by the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, shows that areas where coal was king may still be feeling the effects.

In countries like the UK and the U.S. that industrialized early, coal now plays only a minor role in the economy. For example, in the U.S. today, the entire coal industry employs about 53,000 people, with only about 11,000 of those working in extraction. Coal production and consumption have also declined markedly. Yet prior research has found that in the areas of the U.S. and UK where coal still is a major industry, it affects local populations in a profound way. For example, people who live in areas with active coal mining today often experience greater risk of mental and physical health issues, such as depression, anxiety, COPD, and asthma, than people in other regions. Research also shows that besides the occupational health risks that miners face, these regions pose increased population-wide health risks due to pollution and economic hardship.

Today, millions of people live in such regions that once brought together large-scale coal-based industries, for example in the old industrial north of the UK and the so-called Rust Belt in the U.S. Given that these historical industries had dominated the economic and social life of these regions for such a long time, we wanted to explore whether they continue to influence the people currently living there. Our research suggests that the massive industrialization of the 19th and 20th centuries had long-term psychosocial effects that continue to shape the well-being, health, and behaviors of millions of people in these regions today.

Our study, an interdisciplinary collaboration between psychologists, historians, and economic geographers, examined whether people in former industrial regions in the U.K. and the U.S. demonstrated more markers of “psychological adversity” (i.e., higher neuroticism, lower conscientiousness, lower aspects of extraversion, lower life satisfaction, and lower life expectancy) than people in other regions. To reach back to the Industrial Revolution, we had to examine different sources of unique historical data on regional industry structure — one source, for example, was baptism records from 1813-1820 that stated the occupation of the father. We were able to determine the share of employment in large-scale coal-based industries, such as coal mining, and in steam-powered manufacturing industries that used coal as fuel, such as pottery, textile production, and metal manufacturing. This was our measure for the historical concentration of large-scale, coal-powered industries in a region.

We also used existing online surveys to collect personality trait data from 381,916 current residents of England and Wales and 3,457,270 residents living in the U.S., looking at which regions had more people reporting so-called unhappy personality traits: higher neuroticism (characterized by greater emotional instability, worrying, anger), lower conscientiousness (less self-control and self-management), and lower extraversion (less sociable, outgoing, and fun-oriented). These have been tied to lesser psychological well-being and poorer health behaviors. We also studied life satisfaction and life expectancy across regions.

Our research shows that a region’s historical industries leave a lasting imprint on the local psychology, which remains even when those industries are no longer dominant or have almost completely disappeared. We found that in regions like Blaenau Gwent in the UK and the Rust Belt in the U.S., people reported more unhappy personality traits, lower life satisfaction, and lower life expectancy than otherwise similar regions where these industries did not dominate (think Sussex and Dorset in the non-industrial South of England and regions in the American West). For example, in the UK, neuroticism was 33% higher, conscientiousness 26% lower, and life satisfaction 29% lower in these areas compared with the rest of the country. This effect was robust even when controlling for other historical factors that might have affected the well-being of regions, such as historical energy supply, education, wealth, geology, population density, and climate.

To come to more causal conclusions, we needed to determine that a region’s industrial history is what caused residents to have these personality traits today, rather than regions with a certain personality structure attracting large-scale industries during the Industrial Revolution. We employed an instrumental variable analysis, using the natural location of coalfields in the year 1700. The early industrial centers often emerged near coalfields because coal was expensive to transport and plants were mostly powered by steam engines that required large amounts of cheap coal. Even among these industrial centers — which are likely to have emerged owing to their proximity to coal, and not to any pre-existing personality trends — we observed lower well-being and more adverse personality traits, consistent with idea that a region’s industrial history affects its personality structure.

Since the historical industries appear to exert long-term psychological effects, our next task was understanding the mechanisms driving this. We’ve long known that work and living conditions were bad in old industrial centers — the daily work in the plants and mines was often highly repetitive, stressful, and exhausting, not to mention dangerous, and child labor was very common. We also know from psychological and sociological studies that specific work characteristics, such as a lack of autonomy and complexity at work, can shape the personality of workers in a negative way, for instance by lowering intellectual flexibility and personal initiative. Adam Smith had even argued in 1776 that the division of labor, resulting in highly-specialized and repetitive work tasks, comes with detrimental psychosocial effects for the workers.

Other studies have shown how work characteristics of parents, such as self-direction and conformity at work, get “transmitted” to their children via parenting practices and a socialization of values and norms that leads them to mirror these characteristics. For example, highly repetitive, exhausting, and low-autonomy work can affect the values of workers, in that they put less value on intellectual virtues and crit
ical thinking, and these values then often get transmitted to the children of these workers as well. In addition to these socialization mechanisms, we also know that personality has a genetic basis, which may help certain traits persist across generations.

Finally, we also know that personality is shaped by local institutions such as schools, local attitudes, and social standards. For example we know that school students’ attitudes about unhealthy behaviors and alcohol are influenced by their friends’ and neighbors’ attitudes about these issues. So it’s possible that even people who moved to old industrial regions, versus those whose families had always been there, would be affected by prevailing personality traits and values.

We speculated that migration patterns would contribute to industrialization affecting future personality traits. There are a couple reasons to think this: First, during the Industrial Revolution there might have been a certain “genetic founder effect” at play — that is, the massive influx of a specific personality type into the emerging and quickly growing industrial centers. For the U.K., there are historical analyses arguing that the emerging industrial centers were mainly populated by people from neighboring rural areas who had suffered economic and psychological hardship, such as major famines in Ireland. Such a massive influx might have established an initial level of psychological adversity in these industrial regions during the Industrial Revolution, which would affect and shape the personality structure of subsequent generations in these regions.

Second, people with happier personalities might move away from these regions, which could boost the concentration of unhappy personality traits there today. We found support for this in our data. When we compared people who grew up and stayed in old coal regions with people who grew up there but later left, we found that those who left scored lower in neuroticism and higher in conscientiousness and in aspects of extraversion.

In sum, the effect of the Industrial Revolution seems to be more toxic and far-reaching than previously thought. While massive industrialization brought unprecedented technological and economic progress, it also left a psychological legacy that continues to shape the personality traits and well-being of people currently in these regions. Regional personality, which can provide a sense of local identity and pride, can still reflect the historical hardships and difficult work and living conditions of past generations. Without a strong orchestrated effort to improve economic circumstances and people’s well-being and health in these regions, this legacy is likely to persist.

This research should remind us that the dominance of a certain industry or type of work can have unexpected, long-term effects on the personality structure of regions — and these can be felt long after they change.

CONTINUE READING…

RELATED:

The Elkhorn Manifesto

HORSE CAVE (KY) POLICE CHIEF PLEADS THE 5TH, WHEN GLASGOW ATTORNEY ASKS “DID YOU PLANT DRUGS ON MY CLIENT?”

Image result for horse cave kentucky police department

on 03/22/2018 |

The Horse Cave Police Department has been in the headlines recently and few details have been released regarding the active FBI investigation into the department.  Initially with pay, later changed to unpaid, Horse Cave Police Chief Sean Henry and Officer Chris Trulock have been placed on administrative leave from the department.

This week, in Hart County District Court, Sean Henry took the stand to testify in a preliminary hearing in a case involving an arrest made by the Horse Cave Police Department.  Glasgow attorney Johnny Bell was representing a client who was facing felony drug charges and the hearing was to determine whether there was probably cause to move forward and bump the case up to Circuit Court.

Limited to only one question, which is not common practice, but certainly within the rights of the court, Bell turned to Henry and asked, “Did you plant drugs on my client?”.  Henry then pled the 5th Amendment.

Pleading the 5th is not an admission of guilt, however protects an individual from being compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself.  Henry told the court that his attorney had instructed him to plead the 5th.

At least for the past four years, Bell has represented clients who, not only questioned the integrity of the department, but accused them of planting evidence.  While there has been no public statement from the HCPD, the City of Horse Cave, the KSP or FBI confirming those in the department had been planting evidence, these claims have continued to circulate for the past several years and have grown in number as recently more people are speaking up.

This case was ultimately dismissed.  Two other cases involving arrests made by the Horse Cave Police Department were also dismissed on the same day.  It is unclear, at this time, how many cases involving the HCPD could be impacted by recent events or what the final FBI investigation will reveal about the department.

CONTINUE READING…

“…I don’t know what the law is anymore.”

This was a difficult day for Tennant’s patients — as many see their lives dependent on his continued care and treatment.  “I believe many of Dr. Tennant’s patients will die because they will never find another doctor to treat their painful condition,” says Gary Snook, a Tennant patient who lives with adhesive arachnoiditis, a painful and incurable inflammation in his spinal nerves. 

 DR. FOREST TENNANT  (courtesy montana public radio)

Dr. Forest Tennant Retiring Due to DEA Scrutiny

March 26, 2018

By Pat Anson, Editor

A prominent California pain physician and a longtime champion of the pain community has announced his retirement. Dr. Forest Tennant, and his wife and office manager, Miriam, have informed patients that they are closing their pain clinic in the Los Angeles suburb of West Covina, effective April 1.

“On strong legal and medical advice, as I am 77 and Miriam 76, we are closing the Veract Intractable Pain Medical Clinic and taking retirement. I will write no additional opioid prescriptions after this date,” Tennant wrote in a letter to patients. “We very much regret this situation as the clinic is filled with patients we consider beloved family and friends.”

Tennant’s retirement is largely due to an ongoing DEA investigation of his opioid prescribing practices.   DEA agents raided the Tennants’ home and clinic last November, while Tennant was testifying in Montana as a defense witness in the trial of doctor accused of negligent homicide in the overdose of two patients. The Tennants arrived home to find the front door of their home had been kicked in by DEA agents.

A DEA search warrant alleged that Tennant was part of a “drug trafficking organization” and had personally profited from the sale of high dose opioid prescriptions. Tennant has denied any wrongdoing and no charges have been filed against him, but the investigation remains open and the resulting stress and uncertainty have taken their toll.

“It’s hard to continue operating when they never closed my case, and so I’m going to retire and move on,” Tennant told PNN. “That’s on the advice of both my lawyers and my doctors.”

Tennant is a revered figure in the pain community because of his willingness to treat patients with intractable pain who were unable to find effective treatment elsewhere or were abandoned by their doctors. Many travel to California from out-of-state, and some are in palliative care and near death.

Tennant and his colleague, Dr. Scott Guess, treat about 150 intractable pain patients with a complex formula of high dose opioid prescriptions, hormones, anti-inflammatory drugs and other medications. 

Tennant says the DEA effectively forced him into retirement by refusing to drop the case.  

“You can’t do the kind of work I do and operate in legal uncertainty,” Tennant said. “You’ve got to have legal backing to treat these individuals. And I don’t know what the law is anymore.”

‘Many Patients Will Die’

This was a difficult day for Tennant’s patients — as many see their lives dependent on his continued care and treatment.

“I believe many of Dr. Tennant’s patients will die because they will never find another doctor to treat their painful condition,” says Gary Snook, a Tennant patient who lives with adhesive arachnoiditis, a painful and incurable inflammation in his spinal nerves. “I haven’t decided if I will even look for another doctor, nobody will take a patient like me. And to be honest with you, I am tired of looking, tired of being treated like an addict, tired of being treated like a curiosity and nothing more, not a human being with a serious health issue that deserves to be treated.

“I am completely devastated for myself and my family, for Dr. Tennant and Miriam, for his patients and their families, and for all those who could have benefited from his continued breakthrough treatments and research,” said Denise Molohon, another Tennant patient with lives with arachnoiditis, in an email.

“But I am most deeply saddened today for the entire chronic pain community – both patients and providers – for the tsunami of injustices perpetrated by DOJ/DEA and CDC in their cruelty, ignorance and haste to appear as though they are fighting the opioid overdose epidemic by ruining the lives of many innocent physicians. Their combined actions have had the tragic result of harming untold millions and leading to the senseless, needless deaths of patients all across our country whose only fault was suffering from horrific, intractable pain.”

“The government has stepped in and stopped doctors from treating patients. They have created a hostile work environment for physicians who refuse to conform. Physicians who refuse to let their patients suffer. Addiction is a huge problem but so is intractable pain, yet those of us who play by the rules are the ones who suffer,” said Kate Lamport, a Tennant patient who has arachnoiditis.

“Dr. Tennant and Mrs. Tennant have been a Godsend to all whom have crossed their paths and will never be forgotten by the thousands of lives they have touched and saved. Our blood is not on their hands, it is on the hands of those who have taken Dr. Tennant and every other doctor from us by way of fear.”

“Forest and Miriam treated me like a son as they did all their family, their patients. They did their best to take care of us,” added Snook. “How could any doctor do so and pay $1,000 an hour in legal fees just to defend himself from false charges from the DEA?”

Tennant is referring all of his patients to new doctors, but in an age when many physicians are afraid of prescribing opioids, its unlikely they’ll find similar care elsewhere.  Tennant has operated his pain clinic basically as a charity for years and charged patients little, if anything. He and his wife live modestly, and drive cars that are nearly 30 years old.

“They (the DEA) think my clinic has been operated to make a great deal of money. Some years it loses money. The last two years, it actually lost money. We subsidize it,” Tennant explained.

‘Highly Suspicious’ Prescribing

One medical professional who has been critical of Tennant’s prescribing practices is Dr. Timothy Munzing, a Kaiser Permanente family practice physician who was hired by the DEA to review Tennant’s prescriptions.

Munzing was quoted in a DEA search warrant saying it was suspicious that “many patients are traveling long distances to see Dr. Tennant” and that they were prescribed “extremely high numbers of pills/tablets.”

“I find to a high level of certainty that after review of the medical records… that Dr. Tennant failed to meet the requirements in prescribing these dangerous medications. These prescribing patterns are highly suspicious for medication abuse/and or diversion,” Munzing wrote.

Munzing has worked for several years as a consultant for the DEA and the Medical Board of California, creating a lucrative second career for himself.

 dr. timothy munzing timothy munzing

According to GovTribe, a website that tracks payments to federal contractors, Munzing is paid $300 an hour by the DEA. In the past few months, Munzing has been paid over $250,000 by the DEA to review patient records and testify as an expert witness in DEA cases.

The agency recently created a task force to focus on doctors like Tennant who prescribe high doses of opioids. The task force appears focused solely on the dose and number of prescriptions, not on the quality of life of patients or whether they’ve been harmed.  

After three years of investigation, the DEA has not publicly produced evidence that any of Tennant’s patients have overdosed, been harmed by his treatments, or that they are selling their drugs.

Tennant says he and his wife plan to retire to their home state of Kansas, where they have real estate investments. Once out of the picture, he hopes the medical profession and law enforcement will someday come to a sensible approach about how to deal with patients who need high doses of opioids.

“I have learned that my personality and my image is such that I think its prohibiting a good debate and discussion as to how the country is going to deal with people with really severe pain,” he said.

CONTINUE READING,,,

Research: The Industrial Revolution Left Psychological Scars That Can Still Be Seen Today

March 26, 2018

mar18-14-nypl_5SDWW-OC-270-DgS

The Industrial Revolution, which brought together large-scale coal-based industries like mining, steel, pottery, and textiles, helped create the foundation of modern society and wealth. At the same time, the early industrial economies that formed in this era were also associated with brutal working and living conditions. Our research, recently accepted by the Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, shows that areas where coal was king may still be feeling the effects.

In countries like the UK and the U.S. that industrialized early, coal now plays only a minor role in the economy. For example, in the U.S. today, the entire coal industry employs about 53,000 people, with only about 11,000 of those working in extraction. Coal production and consumption have also declined markedly. Yet prior research has found that in the areas of the U.S. and UK where coal still is a major industry, it affects local populations in a profound way. For example, people who live in areas with active coal mining today often experience greater risk of mental and physical health issues, such as depression, anxiety, COPD, and asthma, than people in other regions. Research also shows that besides the occupational health risks that miners face, these regions pose increased population-wide health risks due to pollution and economic hardship.

Today, millions of people live in such regions that once brought together large-scale coal-based industries, for example in the old industrial north of the UK and the so-called Rust Belt in the U.S. Given that these historical industries had dominated the economic and social life of these regions for such a long time, we wanted to explore whether they continue to influence the people currently living there. Our research suggests that the massive industrialization of the 19th and 20th centuries had long-term psychosocial effects that continue to shape the well-being, health, and behaviors of millions of people in these regions today.

Our study, an interdisciplinary collaboration between psychologists, historians, and economic geographers, examined whether people in former industrial regions in the U.K. and the U.S. demonstrated more markers of “psychological adversity” (i.e., higher neuroticism, lower conscientiousness, lower aspects of extraversion, lower life satisfaction, and lower life expectancy) than people in other regions. To reach back to the Industrial Revolution, we had to examine different sources of unique historical data on regional industry structure — one source, for example, was baptism records from 1813-1820 that stated the occupation of the father. We were able to determine the share of employment in large-scale coal-based industries, such as coal mining, and in steam-powered manufacturing industries that used coal as fuel, such as pottery, textile production, and metal manufacturing. This was our measure for the historical concentration of large-scale, coal-powered industries in a region.

We also used existing online surveys to collect personality trait data from 381,916 current residents of England and Wales and 3,457,270 residents living in the U.S., looking at which regions had more people reporting so-called unhappy personality traits: higher neuroticism (characterized by greater emotional instability, worrying, anger), lower conscientiousness (less self-control and self-management), and lower extraversion (less sociable, outgoing, and fun-oriented). These have been tied to lesser psychological well-being and poorer health behaviors. We also studied life satisfaction and life expectancy across regions.

Our research shows that a region’s historical industries leave a lasting imprint on the local psychology, which remains even when those industries are no longer dominant or have almost completely disappeared. We found that in regions like Blaenau Gwent in the UK and the Rust Belt in the U.S., people reported more unhappy personality traits, lower life satisfaction, and lower life expectancy than otherwise similar regions where these industries did not dominate (think Sussex and Dorset in the non-industrial South of England and regions in the American West). For example, in the UK, neuroticism was 33% higher, conscientiousness 26% lower, and life satisfaction 29% lower in these areas compared with the rest of the country. This effect was robust even when controlling for other historical factors that might have affected the well-being of regions, such as historical energy supply, education, wealth, geology, population density, and climate.

To come to more causal conclusions, we needed to determine that a region’s industrial history is what caused residents to have these personality traits today, rather than regions with a certain personality structure attracting large-scale industries during the Industrial Revolution. We employed an instrumental variable analysis, using the natural location of coalfields in the year 1700. The early industrial centers often emerged near coalfields because coal was expensive to transport and plants were mostly powered by steam engines that required large amounts of cheap coal. Even among these industrial centers — which are likely to have emerged owing to their proximity to coal, and not to any pre-existing personality trends — we observed lower well-being and more adverse personality traits, consistent with idea that a region’s industrial history affects its personality structure.

Since the historical industries appear to exert long-term psychological effects, our next task was understanding the mechanisms driving this. We’ve long known that work and living conditions were bad in old industrial centers — the daily work in the plants and mines was often highly repetitive, stressful, and exhausting, not to mention dangerous, and child labor was very common. We also know from psychological and sociological studies that specific work characteristics, such as a lack of autonomy and complexity at work, can shape the personality of workers in a negative way, for instance by lowering intellectual flexibility and personal initiative. Adam Smith had even argued in 1776 that the division of labor, resulting in highly-specialized and repetitive work tasks, comes with detrimental psychosocial effects for the workers.

Other studies have shown how work characteristics of parents, such as self-direction and conformity at work, get “transmitted” to their children via parenting practices and a socialization of values and norms that leads them to mirror these characteristics. For example, highly repetitive, exhausting, and low-autonomy work can affect the values of workers, in that they put less value on intellectual virtues and crit
ical thinking, and these values then often get transmitted to the children of these workers as well. In addition to these socialization mechanisms, we also know that personality has a genetic basis, which may help certain traits persist across generations.

Finally, we also know that personality is shaped by local institutions such as schools, local attitudes, and social standards. For example we know that school students’ attitudes about unhealthy behaviors and alcohol are influenced by their friends’ and neighbors’ attitudes about these issues. So it’s possible that even people who moved to old industrial regions, versus those whose families had always been there, would be affected by prevailing personality traits and values.

We speculated that migration patterns would contribute to industrialization affecting future personality traits. There are a couple reasons to think this: First, during the Industrial Revolution there might have been a certain “genetic founder effect” at play — that is, the massive influx of a specific personality type into the emerging and quickly growing industrial centers. For the U.K., there are historical analyses arguing that the emerging industrial centers were mainly populated by people from neighboring rural areas who had suffered economic and psychological hardship, such as major famines in Ireland. Such a massive influx might have established an initial level of psychological adversity in these industrial regions during the Industrial Revolution, which would affect and shape the personality structure of subsequent generations in these regions.

Second, people with happier personalities might move away from these regions, which could boost the concentration of unhappy personality traits there today. We found support for this in our data. When we compared people who grew up and stayed in old coal regions with people who grew up there but later left, we found that those who left scored lower in neuroticism and higher in conscientiousness and in aspects of extraversion.

In sum, the effect of the Industrial Revolution seems to be more toxic and far-reaching than previously thought. While massive industrialization brought unprecedented technological and economic progress, it also left a psychological legacy that continues to shape the personality traits and well-being of people currently in these regions. Regional personality, which can provide a sense of local identity and pride, can still reflect the historical hardships and difficult work and living conditions of past generations. Without a strong orchestrated effort to improve economic circumstances and people’s well-being and health in these regions, this legacy is likely to persist.

This research should remind us that the dominance of a certain industry or type of work can have unexpected, long-term effects on the personality structure of regions — and these can be felt long after they change.

CONTINUE READING…

RELATED:

The Elkhorn Manifesto

“…Either you want your freedoms restored, or you don’t.”

Image may contain: text

Kevin James

Yesterday at 10:59am ·

I want to thank the non informed for the Cannabis Act… you’re insistence that legal is best is the gift earned.

I spoke for years about repeal vs legal…

— now I’m done & another wayseer abandons the masses due to tiredness

Either you want your freedoms restored, or you don’t. Most people “say” they want their freedoms restored, even as they deliberately stab themselves–and everyone else–in the back by begging for more statutory enslavement, and REFUSING to end the problem, somehow “believing” that not ending the problem, and always making it worse, is somehow going to end the problem.

So let’s look at the BULLSHIT NON-OPTIONS that people “believe” means they get their freedoms back, as opposed to the REPEAL of the statutes, which actually WOULD end the persecution once and for all:

1) “Decriminalization” is NOT repeal. It is NOT freedom. But some of you still fight for this, instead of to end prohibition.

2) “Legalization” is what we already have. It is NOT freedom. But some of you still fight for this, instead of to end prohibition.

3) “Re-legalization” is two letters prepended to what we already have. It is NOT freedom. But some of you still fight for this, instead of to end prohibition.

4) “Tax and regulate” will create more statutes, more regulations, more licenses, more fees, and create more problems and more “criminal charges.” It is NOT freedom. But some of you still fight for this, instead of to end prohibition.

5) “Regulate like _____” is just a different way to say “tax and regulate.” It is NOT freedom. But some of you still fight for this, instead of to end prohibition.

6) “Hemp ONLY!” It is NOT freedom. But some of you still fight for this, instead of to end prohibition.

7) “Medical ONLY!” It is NOT freedom. But some of you still fight for this, instead of to end prohibition.

8.) “Government control ONLY!” It is NOT freedom. But some of you still fight for this, instead of to end prohibition.

9) “Corporate control ONLY!” is financial in nature, and is ENTIRELY motivated by profiteering. It is NOT freedom. But some of you still fight for this, instead of to end prohibition.

10) “Government/corporate partnership control ONLY!” is actually OVERT FASCISM. It is NOT freedom. But some of you still fight for this, instead of to end prohibition.

There are several other “NOT REPEAL” options that people keep sucking up as “the ONLY solution”, even as they continue to “say” they want their freedom restored.

How can you ever hope to restore your own freedoms while you REFUSE to remove the statutes that took them away, and keep pushing for MORE STATUTES to further control your life in more intrusive ways?

How long are you going to keep paying for more of *your* own enslavement?

Are people EVER going to just wake up and see the truth that’s been staring them in the face for DECADES already?!?

CONTINUE READING…

RELATED:

“Rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to purposes and principles of the United Nations.” HOW THE UNITED NATIONS IS STEALING OUR “UNALIENABLE RIGHTS” TO GROW FOOD AND MEDICINE THROUGH THE U.N. CONVENTION ON NARCOTIC DRUGS AND AGENDA 21.  LINK

https://www.facebook.com/iammkjm/posts/10214522031938895

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10214422174322517&set=a.4142741601196.166072.1063400382&type=3&theater

https://kentuckymarijuanaparty.com/2015/10/26/rights-and-freedoms-may-in-no-case-be-exercised-contrary-to-purposes-and-principles-of-the-united-nations-how-the-united-nations-is-stealing-our-unalienable-rights-to-grow/

That’s one way to get rid of the “pot heads” !

dahboo777

According to various prophecies, predictions, and other various researchers, the above picture may represent the coming changes to our geological formations, i.e., many States will be eliminated or at least partially eliminated by rising waters.  Take note of the States which are depicted as being under water in this screen shot of a video on the subject by Dahboo777 on Youtube which I encourage you to listen to.

The States appear to be Washington, Oregon, California, Nevada, Utah, Arizona, half of Colorado, Michigan, Louisiana,  parts of Arkansas, Missouri, Illinois, Indiana, and parts of the entire eastern Coastline.

Now, look below at the Map of Legal Cannabis States via Norml;

norml

They are; Washington, Oregon, California, Nevada, Montana, Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, North Dakota, Minnesota, Illinois, Arkansas, Louisiana, Michigan,Ohio, and 14 States on the East Coast.

Scallion believed that a pole shift would stem from global warming, nuclear activity, and the misuse of technology. Another theorist and psychic Edgar Cayce predicted a 16 to 20 degree shift, while Scallion predicted a 20-45 degree shift. Cayce predicted that when both Mt. Etna volcano in Italy and Mt. Pelee in Martinique erupt together, there will be approximately 90 days to evacuate the west coast before the massive flood claims the coastline.  LINK

Dahboo777 asks the question,

Are The Elite Preparing for a Cataclysmic Event?

If that “event” were to happen soon, where would you want to be living?  Legal State or “safe zone” ???

I find it odd that the States that have became “legalized” happen to be in the majority of the areas which are believed to be in the biggest “danger zone”…

Expect the unexpected…

It’s just a thought…

sk

https://www.forbes.com/sites/jimdobson/2017/06/10/the-shocking-doomsday-maps-of-the-world-and-the-billionaire-escape-plans/#41f1b6024047

https://www.zerohedge.com/news/2017-07-21/they-may-have-information-we-dont-%E2%80%93-are-elite-preparing-cataclysmic-event

http://norml.org/states

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YRNzN9pjDJc&t=189s

Does America Need Another Prison? It may be this rural county's only chance at survival

By Jon Schuppe Mar 22, 2018

A view of Letcher County from the top of Pine Mountain

WHITESBURG, Ky. — If it wasn’t for his family’s bond to the mountainside where he grew up, Aaron Boggs might have fled by now.

His home is Letcher County, a rugged and remote part of eastern Kentucky sustained for generations by a coal industry that now hardly exists. He remains here out of a sense of duty, but now the prospect of a big new federal project is giving him hope that the area might have an economic future after all.

The project would be a prison.

Starving for jobs, the county has asked the federal government to build a penitentiary here, on the site of an abandoned mountaintop strip mine.

“Having that kind of thing come in, it could symbolize a change in the economy and maybe turn the tide and everything will go back to what it — halfway, at least — to what it was when the coal mines were here,” Boggs, 21, said.

He works at a restaurant while completing college, and envisions himself commuting to the prison from the converted trailer where he lives with his 19-year-old wife, on land still tended by his grandfather. “Hopefully, if the prison does go in, I can get a job there and it will be secure and I’ll be making enough to provide for us where we don’t have to struggle.”

PLEASE CONTINUE READING THIS STORY

Watch: Hoping for a prison

Mitch McConnell wants hemp removed from controlled substance list

FRANKFORT, Ky. (AP)The U.S. Senate’s top leader wants to bring hemp production back into the mainstream by removing it from the list of controlled substances.

Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell said Monday that he’ll introduce legislation to legalize hemp as an agricultural commodity.

The Republican made the announcement in his home state of Kentucky, which has been at the forefront of hemp’s comeback.

Growing hemp without a federal permit has long been banned due to its classification as a controlled substance related to marijuana. Hemp and marijuana are the same species, but hemp has a negligible amount of THC, the psychoactive compound that gives marijuana users a high.

Hemp got a limited reprieve with the 2014 federal Farm Bill, which allows state agriculture departments to designate hemp projects for research and development. So far, more than 30 states have authorized hemp research.

CONTINUE READING…

“…Either you want your freedoms restored, or you don't.”

Image may contain: text

Kevin James

Yesterday at 10:59am ·

I want to thank the non informed for the Cannabis Act… you’re insistence that legal is best is the gift earned.

I spoke for years about repeal vs legal…

— now I’m done & another wayseer abandons the masses due to tiredness

Either you want your freedoms restored, or you don’t. Most people “say” they want their freedoms restored, even as they deliberately stab themselves–and everyone else–in the back by begging for more statutory enslavement, and REFUSING to end the problem, somehow “believing” that not ending the problem, and always making it worse, is somehow going to end the problem.

So let’s look at the BULLSHIT NON-OPTIONS that people “believe” means they get their freedoms back, as opposed to the REPEAL of the statutes, which actually WOULD end the persecution once and for all:

1) “Decriminalization” is NOT repeal. It is NOT freedom. But some of you still fight for this, instead of to end prohibition.

2) “Legalization” is what we already have. It is NOT freedom. But some of you still fight for this, instead of to end prohibition.

3) “Re-legalization” is two letters prepended to what we already have. It is NOT freedom. But some of you still fight for this, instead of to end prohibition.

4) “Tax and regulate” will create more statutes, more regulations, more licenses, more fees, and create more problems and more “criminal charges.” It is NOT freedom. But some of you still fight for this, instead of to end prohibition.

5) “Regulate like _____” is just a different way to say “tax and regulate.” It is NOT freedom. But some of you still fight for this, instead of to end prohibition.

6) “Hemp ONLY!” It is NOT freedom. But some of you still fight for this, instead of to end prohibition.

7) “Medical ONLY!” It is NOT freedom. But some of you still fight for this, instead of to end prohibition.

8.) “Government control ONLY!” It is NOT freedom. But some of you still fight for this, instead of to end prohibition.

9) “Corporate control ONLY!” is financial in nature, and is ENTIRELY motivated by profiteering. It is NOT freedom. But some of you still fight for this, instead of to end prohibition.

10) “Government/corporate partnership control ONLY!” is actually OVERT FASCISM. It is NOT freedom. But some of you still fight for this, instead of to end prohibition.

There are several other “NOT REPEAL” options that people keep sucking up as “the ONLY solution”, even as they continue to “say” they want their freedom restored.

How can you ever hope to restore your own freedoms while you REFUSE to remove the statutes that took them away, and keep pushing for MORE STATUTES to further control your life in more intrusive ways?

How long are you going to keep paying for more of *your* own enslavement?

Are people EVER going to just wake up and see the truth that’s been staring them in the face for DECADES already?!?

CONTINUE READING…

RELATED:

“Rights and freedoms may in no case be exercised contrary to purposes and principles of the United Nations.” HOW THE UNITED NATIONS IS STEALING OUR “UNALIENABLE RIGHTS” TO GROW FOOD AND MEDICINE THROUGH THE U.N. CONVENTION ON NARCOTIC DRUGS AND AGENDA 21.  LINK

https://www.facebook.com/iammkjm/posts/10214522031938895

https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10214422174322517&set=a.4142741601196.166072.1063400382&type=3&theater

https://kentuckymarijuanaparty.com/2015/10/26/rights-and-freedoms-may-in-no-case-be-exercised-contrary-to-purposes-and-principles-of-the-united-nations-how-the-united-nations-is-stealing-our-unalienable-rights-to-grow/

Mergers: Commission clears Bayer's acquisition of Monsanto, subject to conditions

European Commission – Press release

Mergers: Commission clears Bayer’s acquisition of Monsanto, subject to conditions

Brussels, 21 March 2018

The European Commission has approved under the EU Merger Regulation the acquisition of Monsanto by Bayer. The merger is conditional on the divestiture of an extensive remedy package, which addresses the parties’ overlaps in seeds, pesticides and digital agriculture.

Commissioner Margrethe Vestager, in charge of competition policy, said: “We have approved Bayer’s plans to take over Monsanto because the parties’ remedies, worth well over €6 billion, meet our competition concerns in full. Our decision ensures that there will be effective competition and innovation in seeds, pesticides and digital agriculture markets also after this merger.

In particular, we have made sure that the number of global players actively competing in these markets stays the same. That is important because we need competition to ensure farmers have a choice of different seed varieties and pesticides at affordable prices. And we need competition to push companies to innovate in digital agriculture and to continue to develop new products that meet the high regulatory standards in Europe, to the benefit of all Europeans and the environment.”

Today’s decision follows an in-depth review of Bayer’s proposed acquisition of Monsanto. Monsanto is the world’s largest supplier of seeds, which generates most of its sales in the US and Latin America. Monsanto also sells glyphosate, which is the most used pesticide worldwide to control weeds. Bayer is the second largest supplier of pesticides worldwide, with a stronger focus in Europe. It is also an important globally active seeds supplier for a number of crops. The transaction creates the largest global integrated seed and pesticide player.

As part of its in-depth investigation, the Commission has assessed more than 2,000 different product markets and reviewed 2.7 million internal documents. It concluded that the transaction as notified would have significantly reduced competition on price and innovation in Europe and globally on a number of different markets. The Commission also had concerns that it would have strengthened Monsanto’s dominant position on certain markets, where Bayer is an important challenger of Monsanto.

The commitments submitted by Bayer address these competition concerns in full:

  • They remove all of the parties’ existing overlaps in seed and pesticide markets, where concerns were raised, by divesting the relevant Bayer businesses and assets.
  • They cover Bayer’s global R&D organisation for seeds and traits as well as Bayer’s research activities to develop a challenger product to Monsanto’s glyphosate. They also cover certain Monsanto assets, which in future would have competed with a Bayer seed treatment against nematode worms.
  • Finally, Bayer has committed to grant a licence to its entire global digital agriculture product portfolio and pipeline products to ensure continued competition on this emerging market.

On this basis, the Commission concluded that the divestment package enables a suitable buyer to sustainably replace Bayer’s competitive effect in these markets and continue to innovate, for the benefit of European farmers and consumers.

Bayer has proposed BASF as purchaser for the remedy package. The Commission’s assessment is ongoing whether a) the divestiture to BASF meets all purchaser requirements, and b) whether it creates any problematic overlaps or raises other competition concerns (see further below).

Bayer and Monsanto can only implement the transaction when the Commission has completed its review of the proposed buyer.

The Bayer/Monsanto transaction is the third in a row in the seeds and pesticides sector. In line with its case practice, the Commission assesses transactions taking place in the same industry according to the so-called “priority rule” – first come, first served. The assessment of the merger between Bayer and Monsanto has been based on the market situation following the Dow/DuPont merger and the ChemChina/Syngenta merger, taking the remedies in both cases into account.

When it comes to seeds and pesticides there are of course other vital concerns that go beyond competition policy, including consumer protection, food safety and ensuring the highest standards for the environment and the climate. The strict national and European regulatory standards on these matters will remain just as strict after this merger as before it and continue to apply (see further below).

The Commission’s competition concerns

The Commission’s in-depth investigation identified the following competition concerns:

a) Seeds and traits

Seeds are arguably the most important input for farmers, who need a choice of seed varieties that bring high yields in the soil and climate that the crop is cultivated in. Monsanto is the largest supplier of seeds in the world. Bayer is a comparatively smaller player, active in selected crops, but it has extensive research & development (R&D) activities. In Europe, Bayer and Monsanto compete in the supply of vegetable seeds, oilseed rape seeds and cotton seeds, and Bayer has generally been an active and important challenger to Monsanto.

The parties also compete in genetically-modified (GM) and non-GM traits. Traits are modifications to the genome of a seed that make the seed tolerant to certain herbicides or resistant to pests. Traits can be found in nature (native traits) or created with the help of biotechnological tools. They qualify as GM or non-GM traits depending on the biotechnology used to bring the trait into the seed. The trend in the industry goes towards the sale of seeds, which contain several ‘stacked’ trait combinations.

Vegetable seeds

Monsanto is globally the largest supplier of vegetable seeds with its Seminis and De Ruiter brands, and Bayer is currently the fourth largest player in the sector, with its Nunhem’s brand. The Commission concluded that the transaction as notified would have eliminated important head-to-head competition in several markets for particular vegetable seeds, where few alternatives were available to farmers.

Broadacre seeds

Broadacre seeds cover all seed crops that are cultivated on large plots of lands, such as corn, soy, wheat, oilseed rape, cotton seeds.

The activities of Bayer and Monsanto overlap in Europe in two crops namely oilseed rape and cotton seeds. The Commission had concerns that:

o   Oilseed rape seeds: the transaction as notified would have eliminated competition in Europe between the largest supplier in Europe Monsanto and the largest supplier globally, Bayer, which is currently expanding into Europe.

o   Cotton seeds: the transaction as notified would have eliminated competition in the licensing of cotton seeds in Europe.

Broadacre traits

Monsanto is the dominant player in the global trait business with its “Round Up Ready” trait stack families. Bayer with its “Liberty Link” trait stack families is an important and active competitor.

While many GM traits are not allowed for cultivation in Europe, the Commission has investigated the effects of the merger on the global market for the licensing of traits and trait stacks where Bayer and other European players such as BASF, Limagrain, KWS or Syngenta are active as licensors or licensees and directly affected by the merger.

The Commission found that the transaction as notified would have:

o   eliminated competition between “Liberty Link” trait stack families (Bayer) and “Round Up Ready” trait stack families (Monsanto);

o   eliminated innovation competition on GM and non-GM traits conferring herbicide tolerance or insect resistance; and

o   strengthened Monsanto’s dominance in traits conferring herbicide tolerance or insect resistance.

b) Pesticides

Pesticides are products used in agriculture to control pests that can harm crops. Herbicides are pesticides that control weeds.

The Commission found that the transaction as notified would have:

o   eliminated competition in non-selective herbicides for agricultural and non-agricultural uses between Bayer’s glufosinate (under its ‘Liberty’ and ‘Basta’ brands) and Monsanto’s glyphosate (under its ‘Round-up’ brand); and

o   eliminated innovation competition in herbicides and herbicide systems (i.e. herbicide combined with a trait conferring herbicide tolerance to a crop).

The Commission also found that the transaction as notified would have eliminated potential competition in seed treatment to protect against nematode worms between Bayer’s and Monsanto’s future products (called Nemastrike).

c) Digital agriculture

Digital agriculture uses public data such as satellite pictures and weather data as well as private data collected from farmers’ fields. It applies agronomic knowledge and algorithms to that data to recommend to farmers how to best manage their fields. For example, how many seeds to use, and on how much and when to use pesticide and fertiliser. This makes digital agriculture important, not only to farmers but also to the environment.

The transaction as notified would have resulted in the loss of potential competition in Europe between Bayer’s recently launched Xarvio offering and Monsanto’s FieldView platform, the leading platform worldwide, which is about to be launched in Europe.

d) Initial competition concerns not confirmed by the in-depth investigation

Finally, the Commission also looked into the effect of the proposed transaction on innovation in biological pesticides and bee health, and investigated whether the merged entity would have had the ability to exclude competitors from the market through bundling of seeds and pesticides products at distributor level or at grower level. However, the in-depth investigation did not confirm any of these concerns

The commitments

Bayer offered a set of commitments that fully address the Commission’s competition concerns.

a) Vegetable seeds

Bayer has committed to divest its entire vegetable seed business, including its R&D organisation, to a suitable buyer currently not active in vegetable seeds. This would allow the buyer to replicate the competitive constraint previously exercised by Bayer on Monsanto and ensure that the number of global vegetable seeds R&D players remained the same.

b) Broadacre seeds and traits

Bayer has committed to divest to BASF almost the entirety of its global broadacre seeds
and trait business, including its R&D organisation. The divestiture would include Bayer’s seed activities, not only in oilseed rape and cotton where Bayer’s activities overlap with Monsanto in Europe, but also in soybean and wheat, which are important globally and will ensure the viability and competitiveness of the divested business. It would also include Bayer’s entire trait business, including its R&D on GM and non-GM traits.

The divestiture of the seeds and trait business to BASF, which is currently not selling seeds, would remove all the horizontal overlaps between the parties It would also ensure that the current number of global integrated traits players remained the same at four players (with DowDuPont and Syngenta) and ensure that the current number of global broadacre seeds players remained at six (with DowDuPont, Syngenta, KWS and Limagrain).

c) Pesticides

Bayer has committed to divest to BASF its glufosinate assets and three important lines of research for non-selective herbicides. This research forms part of the race to find challenger products for glyphosate. The divested assets would enable BASF, which is currently not selling non-selective herbicides, to replicate the competitive constraint previously exercised by Bayer on Monsanto both in herbicides and in herbicide systems.

To address the Commission’s concerns in seed treatments to protect against nematode worms, the parties have also committed to divest to BASF Monsanto’s nematode seed treatment assets (Nemastrike). This would enable BASF to replicate the competitive constraint, which Monsanto would have exerted on Bayer absent the merger.

d) Digital agriculture

Bayer has committed to licence a copy of its worldwide current offering and pipeline on digital agriculture to BASF, maintaining competition by allowing BASF to replicate Bayer’s position in digital agriculture in the European Economic Area (EEA). This will ensure that the race to become a leading supplier in Europe in this emerging field remains open.

Divestiture to BASF

Bayer proposed in the commitments BASF as the purchaser of the main part of the remedy package comprising broadacre seeds and traits, pesticides and digital agriculture activities.

At first sight, BASF appears to be a suitable buyer because the fact that BASF does not currently sell seeds or non-selective herbicides means there are limited horizontal overlaps in these areas. Furthermore, BASF owns a complementary global pesticide business and it has the necessary financial strength to compete. A market test of competitors and customers was largely positive about the suitability of BASF as a purchaser.

However, Bayer and BASF need to provide further evidence to the Commission on BASF’s ability and incentives to run and develop the divested business in order to replicate Bayer as an active competitor of the merged entity, and on possible overlaps in particular in trait and herbicide research.

The outcome of this investigation cannot be prejudged at this stage. Bayer can only implement the acquisition of Monsanto once the Commission has formally assessed and approved the finalised divestiture of the package of assets to BASF.

For vegetable seeds, the commitments did not name a buyer. In the meantime, Bayer has also proposed BASF as a buyer for this part of the remedy. This part of the remedy also requires a purchaser approval.

The divestiture to BASF of the two packages triggered in the meantime a separate and parallel merger notification, the outcome of which can also not be prejudged.

International Cooperation

The Commission has cooperated very closely with a number of competition authorities on this case, including among others the US Department of Justice as well as among others the Australian, Brazilian, Canadian, Chinese, Indian and South African competition authorities.

Concerns in addition to competition concerns

During its investigation, the Commission has been petitioned through emails, postcards, letters and tweets expressing concerns about the proposed acquisition. The Commission’s mandate under the European merger control rules is to assess the merger solely from a competition perspective. This assessment must be impartial and is subject to the scrutiny of the European Courts.

Other concerns raised by the petitioners relate to European and national rules to protect food safety, consumers, the environment and the climate. While these concerns are of great importance, they cannot form the basis of a merger assessment. Please also see Commissioner Vestager’s response to the petitions published in August 2017.

Companies and products

Bayer, headquartered in Germany, is a diversified pharmaceuticals, consumer health, agriculture (Bayer Crop Science) and animal health company. This transaction mainly concerns the Bayer Crop Science division. Bayer Crop Science operates three business segments: (i) Crop Protection (i.e. pesticides); (ii) Seeds and Traits; and (iii) Environmental Science. Bayer is also active in developing and providing digital agriculture services.

Monsanto, headquartered in the US, is an agriculture company which produces seeds for broad acre crops, fruits and vegetables as well as plant biotechnology traits. It also supplies pesticide products, including the glyphosate herbicide under the “Roundup” brand, and other herbicides for agricultural and non-agricultural use. Additionally, Monsanto is involved in research on biological agriculture and provides farmers with digital agriculture services under the ‘Field View’ brand through its ‘Climate Corporation’ business.

Merger control rules and procedure

The Commission has the duty to assess mergers and acquisitions involving companies with a turnover above certain thresholds (see Article 1 of the Merger Regulation) and to prevent concentrations that would significantly impede effective competition in the EEA or any substantial part of it.

The vast majority of notified mergers do not pose competition problems and are cleared after a routine review. From the moment a transaction is notified, the Commission generally has 25 working days to decide whether to grant approval (Phase I) or to start an in-depth investigation (Phase II).

There are currently three on-going phase II merger investigations: the proposed merger between Praxair and Linde,the proposed acquisition of Cristal by Tronox, and the proposed acquisition of Ilva by ArcelorMittal.

More information will be available on the competition website, in the Commission’s public case register under the case number M.8084.

IP/18/2282

Press contacts:

General public inquiries: Europe Direct by phone 00 800 67 89 10 11 or by email

http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-18-2282_en.htm